Phenotype Glossary


A

PHENOTYPE:

Aminoglycoside-Induced Hearing Loss

Description: Aminoglycoside antibiotics such as streptomycin, gentamicin, neomycin, paromomycin, kanamycin, spectinomycin, amikacin, netilmicin and tobramycin have been widely used to treat bacterial infection. However, aminoglyoside use also carries the risk of both damage to the kidneys or ears; this risk is increased further in individuals carrying certain genetic variants.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Adiponectin

Description: Adiponectin is a hormone that is produced by fat cells and functions in the body to trigger liver and muscles to get energy from fat. Higher levels of adiponectin are considered good for weight loss and health. Of note, Adiponectin levels can be monitored medical providers to better understand a patient’s levels.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet

i don

B

PHENOTYPE:

Blood Pressure Response to Exercise

Description: High blood pressure, also known as hypertension, is a common but serious health issue. A specific genetic marker has been shown to increase the likelihood of hypertension in people who were low in cardiorespiratory fitness, which refers to the ability of the heart and lungs to provide muscles with oxygen for physical activity.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Exercise Response


PHENOTYPE:

BMI Response to Exercise

Description: Body mass index (BMI) is a number expressing the height to weight ratio. A specific genetic marker has been shown to be associated with increased BMI and waistline. However, people who have this genetic variant could reduce their propensity to increased BMI by staying physically active.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Exercise Response


C

PHENOTYPE:

Clopidogrel Metabolism (Plavix)

Description: Clopidogrel is a medication used to inhibit the formation of blood clots in patients with coronary artery disease, peripheral vascular disease, and cerebrovascular disease.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


PHENOTYPE:

Codeine and Nursing Mothers

Description: Codeine is prescribed to relieve mild to moderately severe pain. Both genetic and non-genetic factors affect how the body processes / uses the medication. Dosage should always be carefully monitored if you are a breastfeeding mother that is considering using codeine as a pain reliever.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


D

PHENOTYPE:

Diabetes, Type 1

Description: Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease characterized by the destruction of beta cells in the pancreas. T1D is caused primarily by genetic factors that control the immune system and interact with environmental triggers.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Health Conditions


PHENOTYPE:

Diabetes, Type 2

Description: Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a chronic disease in which there are high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood, and is the most common form of diabetes. Individuals with T2D do not respond efficiently to insulin, the hormone responsible for regulating sugar levels in the body. The two most important risk factors for T2D are obesity and lack of physical activity. However, a number of genetic variants are associated with increased risks of developing T2D.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Health Conditions


E

PHENOTYPE:

Eating Disinhibition

Description: Eating disinhibition is a behavioral trait described as the inability to resist tempting food. Individuals with an increased risk of eating disinhibition may also have a tendency to eat foods that are high in fat, calories and carbohydrates, even if they are already full.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Eating Behaviors


PHENOTYPE:

Endurance Training

Description: Endurance training is generally used to describe exercise that is done for a longer duration with moderate intensity. Most people can benefit from a combination of endurance, high intensity and resistance exercises, but some individuals receive enhanced benefits from endurance training.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Exercise Response


PHENOTYPE:

Estrogen Supplementation

Description: Many oral contraceptives (birth control) and post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy products contain estrogen. These medications by themselves pose an increased risk of blood clots (i.e., venous thrombosis), but this risk is even greater when they are used by individuals with certain inherited risk factors for blood clotting disorders.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


F

PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Folate

Description: Folate is important in maintaining life’s building blocks: DNA and proteins. Folate is present naturally from food or consumed as a synthetic supplement as folic acid. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient folate, though people with problems absorbing folate, pregnant women, or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of folate deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Food Desire

Description: Food desire is a way to describe the additional effort one may put forth to obtain one’s favorite foods. Individuals with increased food desire demonstrate an increased willingness and effort to obtain their favorite foods as well as eat more of them.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Eating Behaviors


G

PHENOTYPE:

N/A

Description: Z.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

N/A

TEST:

N/A


H

PHENOTYPE:

HDL (Good) Cholesterol Response to Exercise

Description: One of the health benefits of exercise is the improvement of the cholesterol levels. HDL cholesterol is known as the good cholesterol, and having more HDL is beneficial.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Exercise Response


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased HDL Cholesterol

Description: High-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is known as good cholesterol, because high levels of HDL cholesterol seem to protect against heart attack, while low levels of HDL cholesterol increase the risk of heart disease. HDL cholesterol levels can be monitored by a medical professional.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Metabolic Health Factors


I

PHENOTYPE:

Insulin Sensitivity Response to Exercise

Description: Insulin sensitivity is beneficial since insulin helps control response to glucose or sugar. Having an increased insulin sensitivity means that the body has a better ability to process sugar. The opposite of insulin sensitivity is called insulin resistance, which is linked to obesity and type 2 diabetes.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Exercise Response


J

MEDICATION

N/A

DRUG CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


K

MEDICATION

N/A

DRUG CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


L

PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Elevated LDL Cholesterol

Description: Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is the type of cholesterol that can become dangerous if there is too much of it. LDL cholesterol can form plaque and build up in the artery walls, and in turn increases the risk of a heart attack or stroke. Cholesterol levels can be monitored by a medical professional.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Metabolic Health Factors


PHENOTYPE:

Loss of Body Fat Response to Exercise

Description: Many people exercise to lose body fat. A specific genetic marker has been shown to increase the benefit of exercise to lose body fat.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Exercise Response


M

PHENOTYPE:

Matching Diet Type

Description: An individual’s genetic profile can affect their responses to specific diet types. Based on individuals’ genetic makeup, they can be matched to one of four specific diet types: Low Fat, Low Carb, Mediterranean, or Balanced Diet. The recommended diet also takes into account the genetic risks for metabolic health factors.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


PHENOTYPE:

Metabolism

Description: Metabolism describes the way the body burns energy (calories) and tends to have a strong correlation to managing weight. Resting metabolism refers to how the body burns energy while at rest. People with a “Fast” resting metabolism can sometimes eat more food with little exercise and not gain weight, while people with a “Normal” resting metabolism tend to require average amounts of food intake and average amounts of exercise to maintain weight.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


PHENOTYPE:

Methotrexate Toxicity

Description: Methotrexate (MTX) is a medication indicated to treat lymphoma and leukemia, as well as other cancers. In addition, MTX is used in the treatment of psoriasis, rheumatoid arthritis and some inflammatory diseases. Some patients taking MTX may experience severe side effects, which are often referred to as MTX toxicity.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


PHENOTYPE:

Response to Monounsaturated Fats

Description: Fat is an important part of any diet, and not all fats are bad. Monounsaturated fat is considered a healthy dietary fat, and some individuals receive increased benefit from eating foods containing monounsaturated fats.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


N

PHENOTYPE:

N/A

Description: Z.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

N/A

TEST:

N/A


O

PHENOTYPE:

Obesity

Description: Obesity is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Genetic factors are likely to be involved when an individual reaches a body mass index (BMI) of 30 to 35 (clinically obese) or above 40 (morbidly obese).

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Omega-6 and Omega-3

Description: Polyunsaturated fats (PUFAs) in our diet are composed of omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids, both of which are recommended by the American Heart Association (AHA) for good heart health. Both omega-3 and omega-6 fats are processed in the body by the same enzyme complex.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


PHENOTYPE:

Osteoarthritis

Description: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a common joint disorder, which is due to aging and wear and tear on the joints. Genetics, age, estrogen use and bone density are all important systemic risk factors for OA. Additionally, Obesity, joint injury, joint deformity, repetitive stress injuries, playing sports and muscle weakness affect the location and severity of OA.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Health Conditions


P

PHENOTYPE:

Response to Polyunsaturated Fats

Description: Polyunsaturated fat is considered a healthy fat and is important for heart and brain function, as well as growth and development. Two types of polyunsaturated fats are omega-6 and omega-3 fats. Some individuals receive increased benefit from eating foods containing polyunsaturated fats.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


Q

PHENOTYPE

N/A

Description: Z

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


R

PHENOTYPE

N/A

Description: Z

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


S

PHENOTYPE:

Satiety (feeling full)

Description: Satiety is the feeling of fullness after food consumption. Some people do not feel full after eating, which can lead to eating too much and not truly feeling satisfied.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Eating Behaviors


PHENOTYPE:

Simvastatin-Induced Myopathy

Description: Simvastatin is a member of the statins, a class of cholesterol-lowering drugs whose major potential adverse effect is skeletal muscle toxicity. Symptoms may include muscle pain, muscle degradation (myopathy), or severe muscle damage.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


PHENOTYPE:

Snacking

Description: Snacking can be a healthy or unhealthy behavior depending on the food selection. Eating healthy foods in small portions throughout the day has been found in some people to decrease hunger cravings and reduce overall calories, while snacking on junk food can have negative health affects.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Eating Behaviors


PHENOTYPE:

Sweet Tooth

Description: Craving sweet foods is sometimes described as having a “sweet tooth.” Individuals with a “sweet tooth” tend to have the propensity to eat more sweets throughout the day than the general population.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Eating Behaviors


T

PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Elevated Triglycerides

Description: Triglyceride is the technical for fat as it is stored in your body. People with elevated triglycerides are at risk of coronary artery disease and type 2 diabetes. Triglyceride levels can be monitored by the physician.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Metabolic Health Factors


U

MEDICATION

N/A

DRUG CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


V

PHENOTYPE:

Venous Thrombosis

Description: Venous thrombosis (VT) is the formation of a blood clot in the veins that can potentially lead to thromboembolism (i.e., the blocking of a blood vessel by a portion of the clot that has broken away from it). The individual risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is determined by a complex interaction of genetic, circumstantial and environmental factors. Risk factors for VT include immobility, surgery, trauma, cancer, hormonal therapy, pregnancy, advanced age and family history.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Health Conditions


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Vitamin A

Description: Vitamin A is made from beta-carotene in the body. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient beta-carotene. However, people with problems absorbing beta-carotene or people with certain genetic variants may have increased risk of vitamin A deficiency due to decreased ability in converting beta-carotene to vitamin A.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk due to Decreased Vitamin B2

Description: Vitamin B2 is a central component for energy production and in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient vitamin B2, though people with problems absorbing vitamin B2 or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of vitamin B2 deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Vitamin B6

Description: Vitamin B6 helps the body’s neurological system to function properly and to produce antibodies that help to fight off disease. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient vitamin B6, though people with problems absorbing vitamin B6 or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of vitamin B6 deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Vitamin B12

Description: Vitamin B12 helps to keep red blood cells healthy and is a critical component for synthesis of DNA. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient B12 vitamins, though vegetarians, vegans, people with problems absorbing B12 or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of vitamin B12 deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Vitamin C

Description: Vitamin C must be acquired from dietary sources, as humans are unable to synthesize it. While a severe deficiency of vitamin C ultimately leads to scurvy, variations in vitamin C levels have also been associated with a wide range of chronic complex diseases, such as atherosclerosis, type 2 diabetes and cancer. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient vitamin C, though people with problems absorbing vitamin C or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of vitamin C deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Decreased Vitamin D

Description: Vitamin D is important for the absorption of calcium, which is beneficial to bones and muscles. A healthy diet with adequate exposure to sunlight will typically provide sufficient vitamin D, though people with problems absorbing vitamin D or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of vitamin D deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY

Nutritional Needs


PHENOTYPE:

Genetic Risk for Increased Vitamin E

Description: Vitamin E is important for a strong immune system and healthy skin. A healthy diet will typically provide sufficient vitamin E, though people with problems absorbing vitamin E or people with a genetic variant may have increased risk of vitamin E deficiency.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Nutritional Needs


W

PHENOTYPE:

Warfarin

Description: Warfarin is the most frequently used oral anticoagulant worldwide, prescribed for indications such as venous thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, atrial fibrillation and cardiac valve replacement. Warfarin is highly effective, but also has a high incidence of adverse events. Customizing initial warfarin dose based on genetic results may decrease the risk of bleeding complications and may reduce the time required to achieve a stable, therapeutic effect.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Medication Response


PHENOTYPE:

Weight Loss – Regain

Description: Some genetic markers are associated with the tendency to gain weight back after an individual loses weight, while other genetic markers protect a person from weight regain.

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY:

Weight and Diet


X

PHENOTYPE

N/A

Description: Z

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


Y

PHENOTYPE

N/A

Description: Z

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A


Z

PHENOTYPE

N/A

Description: Z

PHENOTYPE CATEGORY

N/A

TEST

N/A