Pain Medication DNA Insight®

Effective Prescription for Pain Medication

Understanding Response to Pain Medication and Pharmacogenomics

A variety of over-the-counter and prescription medications are available on the market today to treat pain ranging from mild to severe. However, not everyone responds to medications in the same exact way due to factors such as age, weight, general health and nutrition. In addition, an individual’s genetic makeup has been consistently shown to influence how he/she will respond to certain medications. The study of how genetics can affect drug response is known as pharmacogenomics.

Our Genetic Test Can Help

Pain Medication DNA Insight® analyzes patients’ DNA to identify genetic variants that can affect how they respond to the analgesic effects (pain relief) of 13 commonly prescribed pain medications (see below for listing).

Risks and Benefits

Clinical Implementation for Patients

Pain Medication DNA Insight® provides physicians with a personalized roadmap for pain medication management by helping to identify the appropriate medications and dosage for their patients.

Learn More About Pain Medication DNA Insight

Genes Analyzed:


Drug Class Description:

The Opioid class of compounds has been extensively used to treat acute pain as well as to alleviate severe chronic pain associated with certain terminal conditions1.

Genes Analyzed:


Drug Class Description:”

Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are a class of drugs widely used for their analgesic, anti-pyretic and anti-inflammatory properties8.

Genes Analyzed:


Other Medications:

Step 1:

Pain Medication DNA Insight® can be ordered from a licensed and registered physician or other qualified healthcare provider.

Step 2:

The patient will provide a saliva or blood sample using the collection kit in the Pathway Genomics box.

Step 3:

You or your authorized health care professional will mail your saliva sample back to Pathway Genomics, along with your test requisition and consent form (return shipping provided). You can view our saliva collections instructional video here.

Step 4:

Pathway Genomics processes and analyzes the submitted sample in its CLIA certified and CAP accredited laboratory. Typically within two to three weeks, the patient’s personalized results will be available to the ordering physician. The results will then be released to the patient. Pathway Genomics has a team of genetic counselors available to ensure that both the patient and the physician understand the information in the report, and to answer additional questions. To contact a Pathway Genomics genetic counselor, please call client services department at 877-505-7374 or email

Pain Medication DNA Insight® is for patients currently taking, or considering taking a pain medication. This clinically-actionable genetic test can assist physicians in understanding patients’ response to certain pain medications, and can help with identification of optimal treatment plans.

How It Works

This simple saliva- or blood-based test is supported by scientifically validated genetic testing technologies, using clinically relevant markers and assays. In just 2-3 weeks, the Pain Medication DNA Insight® report will be delivered to the physicians.

Reports: A Simple Guide to Understanding

Based on the individual’s unique genetic profile, Pain Medication DNA Insight® provides information that enables the physician to:

Prescribe a more appropriate medication to avoid potentially severe and life-threatening side effects.

Find the optimal dosage for patients, and understand the lack of medication efficacy in some cases.

Avoid the misinterpretation of medication-seeking behavior.

View Sample Report

Get the Pathway Genomics App today!

  • Access an interactive version of the report anytime, anywhere
  • Learn about other Pathway tests and how they can help lead a healthier life
  • Help friends and family by sharing the power of genetic insight
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+ References

  1. Alam, A. and D.N. Juurlink, The prescription opioid epidemic: an overview for anesthesiologists. Can J Anaesth, 2015.
  2. Codeine (drug label). Roxane Laboratories, Inc. April 2013 [cited 2015 November 11]; Available from:
  3. Abstral (fentanyl) drug label. February 2012 [cited 2015 December 8]; Available from:
  4. Hydrocodone. MedlinePlus Website. October 2014 [cited 2015 December 8]; Available from:
  5. Trafton, J.A. and A. Ramani, Methadone: a new old drug with promises and pitfalls. Curr Pain Headache Rep, 2009. 13(1): p. 24-30.
  6. Oxycodone. DrugBank website. February 2013 [cited 2015 November 11]; Available from:
  7. Tramadol. DrugBank website. February 2013 [cited 2015 November 11]; Available from:
  8. Medication Guide for Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). [cited 2015 September 02]; Available from:
  9. Celebrex (celecoxib) capsule drug label. June 2015 [cited 2015 November 11]; Available from:
  10. Cataflam (diclofenac) tablet drug label. [cited 2015 September 02]; Available from:
  11. Zorvolex (diclofenac) capsule drug label. [cited 2015 September 02]; Available from:
  12. Bort, R., et al., Hepatic metabolism of diclofenac: role of human CYP in the minor oxidative pathways. Biochem Pharmacol, 1999. 58(5): p. 787-96.
  13. Ansaid tablet (drug label). [cited 2015 September 02]; Available from:
  14. Ibuprofen [cited 2015 September 02]; Available from:
  15. Mobic (meloxicam) drug label. [cited 2015 September 02]; Available from:
  16. Gupta, A., et al., Carisoprodol-induced amnestic state. Indian J Psychiatry, 2008. 50(1): p. 72-3.
  17. Methotrexate. DailyMed website. September 2015 [cited 2015 December 8]; Available from: